Recent studies on nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene showed that they possess anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-oxidant and anti-HIV properties: Stabilizing interactions between fullerenes and the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, a recent experimental  study showed that the lipid layer present in the virus of COVID-19 can be deactivated by the nanocarbon-coated surfaces, such as fullerenes. Other studies showed anti-cancer effects of fullerene derivatives SARS-CoV-2 is found to cause several and very different symptoms, such as hypoxemia (lack of oxygen). Once the cell is infected with SARS-CoV-2, it depletes the cell in oxygen. It is known that fullerenes adsorb oxygen molecules and the presence of heteroatoms on them systematically reduces the energy gap, this means that the exchange of electrons is greater and become most reactive compared to pure fullerenes [42,43]. The presence of oxygen atoms on the surface of fullerenes will promote the formation of hydrogen bonds with various targets (spike protein and hACE2), which will strengthen the binding of modified fullerenes to these targets and thus inhibit the penetration of SARS-CoV-2 inside the cell.
Covid And Fullerenes (shungite): preventing spike protein attachment